In a civil war or insurrection, the winners may deem the losers to be traitors. The criminal code also prohibits, among other acts, the suppression or falsification of legal documents or evidence relevant to the international relations of Switzerland (art.

Since the abolition of the death penalty for murder in 1965 an execution for treason was unlikely to have been carried out. The requirement of testimony of two witnesses was inherited from the British Treason Act 1695. However, in especially severe cases, life imprisonment or any term of at least of five years may be sentenced. Very few people have been prosecuted for the act of treason in New Zealand and none have been prosecuted in recent years. These are punishable with imprisonment for between seven and 30 years.

3 St. 5 c. 2). "Crimes Related to Insurrection" is the internal treason, and may include a coup d'état. Any Vietnamese citizen acting in collusion with a foreign country with a view to causing harm to the independence, sovereignty, unity and territorial integrity of the Fatherland, the national defense forces, the socialist regime or the State of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam shall be sentenced to between twelve and twenty years of imprisonment, life imprisonment or capital punishment. The period of detention may not exceed three years. Penalty: Not less than 5.5 years and not more than 30 years' imprisonment (minimum sentencing guidelines). In Australia, there are federal and state laws against treason, specifically in the states of New South Wales, South Australia and Victoria. These include espionage or transmission of secrets to a foreign power (art. The method of execution is specified as electrocution. The First Congress used its constitutional power of declaring the punishment for treason by establishing the penalty of death, with seven years’ imprisonment for misprision of treason. In Algeria, treason is defined as the following: In Bahrain, plotting to topple the regime, collaborating with a foreign hostile country and threatening the life of the Emir are defined as treason and punishable by death. Originally, the crime of treason was conceived of as being committed against the Monarch; a subject failing in his duty of loyalty to the Sovereign and acting against the Sovereign was deemed to be a traitor.

The Constitution does not itself create the offense; it only restricts the definition (the first paragraph), permits the United States Congress to create the offense, and restricts any punishment for treason to only the convicted (the second paragraph).

The law applies equally to Japanese and non-Japanese people, while treason in other countries usually applies only to their own citizens. As with other crimes carrying sentence of death, those adjudged guilty of treason and finally sentenced were considered attaint, or stained, meaning dead in the eyes of the law—even before execution. Besides treason and espionage, there are many other crimes dealing with national security, insurrection, terrorism and so on. July 2015, Germany's Public Prosecutor General Harald Range initiated criminal investigation proceedings against the German blog [29] Joseph Smith and Hyrum Smith were later charged with "treason against the government and people of the State of Illinois."[30].

Several men were convicted of treason in connection with the 1794 Whiskey Rebellion but were pardoned by President George Washington.

2. Whosoever, within New South Wales or without, compasses, imagines, invents, devises, or intends to deprive or depose Our Most Gracious Lady the Queen, her heirs or successors, from the style, honour, or Royal name of the Imperial Crown of the United Kingdom, or of any other of Her Majesty's dominions and countries, or to levy war against Her Majesty, her heirs or successors, within any part of the United Kingdom, or any other of Her Majesty's dominions, in order, by force or constraint, to compel her or them to change her or their measures or counsels, or in order to put any force or constraint upon, or in order to intimidate or overawe, both Houses or either House of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, or the Parliament of New South Wales, or to move or stir any foreigner or stranger with force to invade the United Kingdom, or any other of Her Majesty's dominions, or countries under the obeisance of Her Majesty, her heirs or successors, and expresses, utters, or declares such compassings, imaginations, inventions, devices, or intentions, or any of them, by publishing any printing or writing, or by open and advised speaking, or by any overt act or deed, shall be liable to imprisonment for 25 years.

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